There are no code, functionality or operational similarities to suggest that this is a tool from a known threat actor

ESET researchers have discovered a unique and previously undescribed loader for Windows binaries that, unlike other such loaders, runs as a server and executes received modules in memory. We have named this new malware Wslink after one of its DLLs.

We have seen only a few hits in our telemetry in the past two years, with detections in Central Europe, North America, and the Middle East. The initial compromise vector is not known; most of the samples are packed with MPRESS and some parts of the code are virtualized. Unfortunately, so far we have been unable to obtain any of the modules it is supposed to receive. There are no code, functionality or operational similarities that suggest this is likely to be a tool from a known threat actor group.

The following sections contain analysis of the loader and our own implementation of its client, which was initially made to experiment with detection methods. This client’s source code might be of interest to beginners in malware analysis – it shows how one can reuse and interact with existing functions of previously analyzed malware. The very analysis could also serve as an informative resource documenting this threat for blue teamers.

Technical analysis

Wslink runs as a service and listens on all network interfaces on the port specified in the ServicePort registry value of the service’s Parameters key. The preceding component that registers the Wslink service is not known. Figure 1 depicts the code accepting incoming connections to that port.

Figure 1. Hex-Rays decompilation of the loop accepting incoming connections

Accepting a connection is followed by an RSA handshake with a hardcoded 2048-bit public key to securely exchange both the key and IV to be used for 256-bit AES in CBC mode (see Figure 2). The encrypted module is subsequently received with a unique identifier – signature – and an additional key for its decryption.

Interestingly, the most recently received encrypted module with its signature is stored globally, making it available to all clients. One can save traffic this way – transmit only the key if the signature of the module to be loaded matches the previous one.

Figure 2. Hex-Rays decompilation of receiving the module and its signature

As seen in Figure 3, the decrypted module, which is a regular PE file, is loaded into memory using the MemoryModule library and its first export is finally executed. The functions for communication, socket, key and IV are passed in a parameter to the export, enabling the module to exchange messages over the already established connection.

Figure 3. Hex-Rays decompilation of code executing the received module in memory

Implementation of the client

Our own implementation of a Wslink client, described below, simply establishes a connection with a modified Wslink server and sends a module that is then decrypted and executed. As our client cannot know the private key matching the public key in any given Wslink server instance, we produced our own key pair and modified the server executable with the public key from that pair and used the private key in our Wslink client implementation.

This client enabled us to reproduce Wslink’s communication and search for unique patterns; it additionally confirmed our findings, because we could mimic its behavior.

Initially some functions for sending/receiving messages are obtained from the original sample (see Figure 4) – we can use them right away and do not have to reimplement them later.

Figure 4. The code for loading functions from a Wslink’s sample

Subsequently, our client reads the private RSA key to be used from a file and a connection to the specified IP and port is established. It is expected that an instance of Wslink already listens on the supplied address and port. Naturally, its embedded public key must also be replaced with one whose private key is known.

Our client and the Wslink server continue by performing the handshake that exchanges the key and IV to be used for AES encryption. This consists of three steps, as seen in Figure 5: sending a client hello, receiving the symmetric key with IV, and sending them back to verify successful decryption. From reversing the Wslink binary we learned that the only constraint of the hello message, apart from size 240 bytes, is that the second byte must be zero, so we just set it to all zeroes.

Figure 5. Our client’s code for the RSA handshake

The final part is sending the module. As one can see in Figure 6, it consists of a few simple steps:

receiving the signature of the previously loaded module – we decided not to do anything with it in our implementation, as it was not important for us
sending a hardcoded signature of the module
reading the module from a file, encrypting it (see Figure 7) and sending it
sending the encryption key of the module

Figure 6. Our client’s code for sending the module

Figure 7. Our client’s code for loading and encrypting the module

The full source code for our client is available in our WslinkClient GitHub repository. Note that the code still requires a significant amount of work to be usable for malicious purposes and creating another loader from scratch would be easier.


Wslink is a simple yet remarkable loader that, unlike those we usually see, runs as a server and executes received modules in memory.

Interestingly, the modules reuse the loader’s functions for communication, keys and sockets; hence they do not have to initiate new outbound connections. Wslink additionally features a well-developed cryptographic protocol to protect the exchanged data.



SHA-1ESET detection name

MITRE ATT&CK techniques

This table was built using version 9 of the ATT&CK framework.

EnterpriseT1587.001Develop Capabilities: MalwareWslink is a custom PE loader.
ExecutionT1129Shared ModulesWslink loads and executes DLLs in memory.
T1569.002System Services: Service ExecutionWslink runs as a service.
Obfuscated Files or InformationT1027.002Obfuscated Files or Information: Software PackingWslink is packed with MPRESS and its code might be virtualized.
Command and ControlT1573.001Encrypted Channel: Symmetric CryptographyWslink encrypts traffic with AES.
T1573.002Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric CryptographyWslink exchanges a symmetric key with RSA.

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